The global burden of non-communicable diseases has been rising over the last century, with the leading cause of neurological, metabolic and degenerative disorders. The several studies have reported that the incorporation of prebiotics in human diet is favourable to eliminate the pathological ailments. Since prebiotics occur naturally in plants including leeks, asparagus, onion, wheat, garlic, chicory, oats, soybean and Jerusalem artichoke. Jerusalem artichoke is a perennial tuber contains proteins, mono or poly- unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and excellent amount of soluble dietary fibers such as inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides with negligible amount of starch which is digested with Bifidobacterium. It is associated with expansion of bioavailability of minerals, increase activity of favourable bacteria, ease the digestion of high protein diets, delay fat absorption, deliver roughage, prevent constipation, increase satiety value which results in various therapeutic properties such as antidiabetic, cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological properties. It is also used as a functional food ingredient in the design and production of child formulation, chocolates, sugar confectionaries, soups, sauces, meat products, bakery products, nutritional bars, beverages, milk products, dietary supplements and many other food products. Therefore, its remarkable therapeutic effects and various food applications make this tuber very valuable for further investigation in the area of pharmaceutical and food industries.